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Career choices among medical students in Bangladesh

SM Moslehuddin Ahmed(1), Md Anwarul Azim Majumdar(2), Rezina Karim(3), Sayeeda Rahman(2), Nuzhat Rahman(4)

1) Department of Community Medicine, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2) Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 3) Department of Microbiology, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 4) Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA

Introduction: Information regarding career choices of medical students is important to plan human resources for health, design need-based educational programs, and ensure equitable and quality health care services in a country.

Drug Ordinance 1982 is first step of consumer protection in Bangladesh

It might be surprising to note that during the first decade after the emergence of Bangladesh as a sovereign entity no law was enacted to safeguard the consumer rights, the first significant move was however made in 1982 with the promulgation of the drugs control ordinance. This ordinance has been widely acclaimed, both within and outside of Bangladesh as a historic step towards protection of consumer rights and interests.

Hospital Pharmacists in Bangladesh

Pharmacists are experts in medicines and how they work. They have five years education and training and play a key role in providing quality healthcare to patients. They work in the community, hospitals, industry and academic settings and use their clinical expertise to ensure the safe supply and use of medicines by the public.

Hospital pharmacists are a vital part of the healthcare team. Working in either the NHS or private hospitals, being a hospital pharmacist means you're part of a team where the focus is firmly on patients. It's noble profession for a pharmacist if he follow medical ethics in his profession.

Frequently Asked Questions in Blood Donation

What are the minimum requirements to become a blood donor?

Generally, you must be at least 16 years of age, a minimum of 110 pounds, and in basic good health.

Will donating blood hurt?

You may feel a slight sting in the beginning lasting only a couple of seconds, but there should be no discomfort during the donation.

Can I get AIDS from donating blood?

No. There is no risk of contracting AIDS or any other disease through the donation process. Each collection kit is sterile, pre-packaged and used only once.

OTC Medication

There are many over-the-counter (OTC) medications available without a prescription, which are used to treat the symptoms of many illnesses that don't usually require the help of a physician or health care practitioner. This article reviews a few of these medications that can help treat minor aches and pains, fever, diarrhea, cold symptoms, sore throat, and allergies.

OTC medications have brand names as well as generic and store brand names (similar to prescription medications). Generic, store, and brand names contain the same active ingredients and are identical in their action on the body if the concentration of the active ingredients are the same. Since some OTC pills and liquids contain multiple medications, it is important to read the fine print on the label to know exactly what ingredients are in the product.

Health and medical definitions of some terms frequently used in health sector

There are given health and medical definitions of some terms frequently used in health sector:

Abdomen: The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the chest and the pelvis. The abdomen is separated anatomically from the chest by the diaphragm, the powerful muscle spanning the body cavity below the lungs.

Abdominal pain: Pain in the belly. Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect a major problem with one of the organs in the abdomen, such as appendicitis or a perforated intestine, or it may result from a fairly minor problem, such as excess buildup of intestinal gas.

Acid indigestion: Excessive secretion of hydrochloric acid by the stomach cells.

Adrenaline: A stress hormone produced within the adrenal gland that quickens the heart beat, strengthens the force of the heart's contraction, and opens up the bronchioles in the lungs, among other effects. The secretion of adrenaline is part of the human 'fight or flight' response to fear, panic, or perceived threat. Also known as epinephrine.

Allergic reaction: The hypersensitive response of the immune system of an allergic individual to a substance.

Common Medical Abbreviations and Terminology

There are given some medical abbreviations and terminology, which are frequently used in medical fields:

a.c.: Before meals. As in taking a medicine before meals.

a/g ratio: Albumin to globulin ratio.

ACL: Anterior cruciate ligament. ACL injuries are one of the most common ligament injuries to the knee. The ACL can be sprained or completely torn from trauma and/or degeneration.

Anuric: Not producing urine. A person who is anuric is often critical and may require dialysis.

b.i.d.: Twice daily. As in taking a medicine twice daily.

BP: Blood pressure. Blood pressure is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."

C&S: Culture and sensitivity, performed to detect infection.

C/O: Complaint of. The patient's expressed concern.

Pharmaceutical terms used in company

ANDA : Abbreviated New Drug Application, this is a simplified submission of an already approved drug. ANDA’s are for products with the same or very closely related active ingredients, dosage, strength etc.

Accelerated Approval : A highly specialized mechanism intended to speed approval of drugs promising significant benefit over existing therapy for serious or life threatening illnesses.

Action Letter : An official communication from the FDA to an NDA sponsor that informs of a decision by the agency.

Adverse Event : Unwanted effects that occur and are detected in populations.

Advisory Committee : A panel of outside experts convened periodically to advise on safety and efficacy issues about drugs.

Amendment to an NDA : A submission to change or add information to an NDA or supplement not yet approved.

: Rate and extent to which a drug is absorbed or is otherwise available to the treatment site in the body.

Prospect of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology in Bangladesh

Bangladesh has tremendous possibilities to do a lot better by focusing on biotechnology and genetic engineering. A very exciting field of biotechnology is bioinformatics which is actually the marriage between biology and computer science, where enormous amount of data that are being produced in the biological research laboratories around the globe are compared, analysed, and annotated to discover new genes, characterise them, develop new drugs and build complex biological networks. The sequencing of a whole genome has been made possible through the bioinformatics approach and, of course, the functional annotation, finding the distinct regions responsible for unique functions or characteristics.

Globally, the pharmaceutical companies have given keen attention to maximize the utilization of biotechnology in pharmaceutical fields and, hence, they are investing huge amounts for the invention, development, manufacturing and marketing of biotech drugs. The pharmaceutical companies of Bangladesh are also turning to the biotech products. Some companies have already introduced some biotech products like human insulin, anticancer drugs, etc. and some are on the process of launching many other biotech products. Although the journey of Bangladeshi pharmaceutical companies on the road of biotechnology and biotech products is still at the primary stage, yet it’s a positive sign that Bangladeshi companies are trying to cope with global pharmaceutical trend and they have taken this initiative to mitigate the local demand of biotech products in Bangladesh.

Biotechnology Study in Bangladesh

Biotechnology is one of the fastest growing sectors internationally, and demand is strong for qualified experts, managers and researchers. Biotechnology offers potential solutions to many of the pressing problems current facing medicine and agriculture.

Biotechnology study in Bangladesh is one of the growing fields of science and technology. The research for biotechnology in Bangladesh started in the late 1970s. The root cause behind the initiation was the significance of agricultural sector, which had been the backbone of the national economy since the ancient times. The research first started in the department of botany in University of Dhaka through Tissue culture on jute. Subsequently, within the next 10-12 years, similar research programs began to take place in University of Rajshahi, University of Chittagong, University of Khulna, Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh Forest Research Institute, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) and Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission.In 1999, the National Institute of Biotechnology was established as the center of excellence in biotechnological education. To accelerate multidimensional biotechnological research, in 2006, the government adopted the national policy guidelines on biotechnology which was approved by the National Task force on biotechnology.

Pharmacy Career

Pharmacy is one of the fastest growing areas of healthcare and offers a wide range of career opportunities.

Pharmacists can dispense prescription medications to patients and offer expertise in the safe use of prescriptions. They also may provide advice on how to lead a healthy lifestyle, conduct health and wellness screenings, provide immunizations, and oversee the medications given to patients.

Job options

Jobs directly related to your degree include:
● Community pharmacist
● Hospital pharmacist
● Research scientist (life sciences)